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Guiding Questions:

  • What was Joseph's trade?

Joseph must have been aware of the Nazi Party's rise to power in Germany. As a teenager, though, he also had other important issues on his mind. 

He had left school at age 13. We're not totally sure why he did so. By age 15, in 1933, he chose to apprentice as a barber. He knew without a high school education he needed a trade. The master barber, a man named Pulvermacher, owned a shop nearby. 


That same year, Joseph's brother Sam got married. Sam was the oldest child and this was a major family event. Joseph got dressed up right for the event, wearing a tophat and tails. About 50 people attended the ceremony and the party, both of which were held at the Peitav Shul. Sam married a woman named Frieda, and they would go on to have a boy named Ruben. Joseph took Frieda's sister to the wedding as a date. 

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